She also traces the emergence of racial panics around infringement, arguing that the post-racial creator exists in opposition to the figure of the hyper-racial infringer, a national enemy who is the opposite of the hardworking, innovative American creator. The Color of Creatorship contributes to a rapidly-developing conversation in critical race intellectual property. Vats argues that once anti-racist activists grapple with the underlying racial structures of intellectual property law, they can better advocate for strategies that resist the underlying drivers of racially disparate copyright, patent, and trademark policy.
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Vats shows how IP and contested citizenship have evolved to embed centuries of systemic racial injustices, reaching into the past to imagine a new and exciting future for creatorship. John H.
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Barton, Edited by and with an Introduction by Helen M. Stacy and Henry T. Contemporary Political Theory. Critics, commentators and scholars of racial inequality have come to face what is becoming an increasingly thorny problem. On the one hand, empirics continue to bear out the despairing variety of manifestations of racial inequality. Whether it concerns income and job opportunity, access to health care, adverse interactions with the law, or housing segregation to name but a few , racial inequality is a rock-solid fact of American social, political and economic life.
It is not so. On the other hand of the facts there are the perceived norms: that racism is wrong, and that blacks should have equal rights. And because these norms have themselves also become, in a manner of speaking, facts of American life, one can sense that one is losing his or her audience when race is cited as a causal factor in racial inequality.
The use of residential real estate as the central case is a smart move. Thus, presumptively, people do not intend to make a political statement when buying a home, but rather express the ostensible aspiration of comfort, security and privacy. Hayward compellingly insists that the aspiration itself is mired in a troubled political history that all begins with a bad identity story.
HOW AMERICANS MAKE RACE by Clarissa Rile Hayward reviewed by Irami Osei-Frimpong • Cleaver Magazine
In Chapter 1, we are instructed that the identity process is selective not everything we experience is incorporated into who we take ourselves to be , exegetical events are ordered to convey a message or story about oneself , productive it prepares one to be placed among others perceived as similar in the relevant respects , and evaluative in that one begins to embrace some norms or values over others.
Alongside identities are stories that themselves can be good or bad. A story is a bad one, then, when one or all of these elements lose integrity. Hayward initiates our understanding the narrative of home-owning as being a great American virtue by displaying one of her own great virtues as a political theorist: interviewing ordinary, everyday Americans.
On the one hand, we have Steven Mullins, a white male who has very patriotic views, and incidentally lives on the same property that has been in his family for generations. How did we acquire this story, and why is it a racial one?
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Chapter 2 describes an important shift in the social marginalization of certain European ethnicities in relation to blacks that was in part driven by the Great Migration of blacks from the south to the north. This comes in close temporal proximity to early attempts at developing exclusive suburban communities.
We learn that subsequent to the Great Depression, the Home Owners Loan Corporation and the Federal Housing Administration explicitly intended to impose or sanction racial segregation in the form of red-lining and other methods. Realtors were both permitted and encouraged to lace land deals with racially restrictive covenants, thus protecting the wholesome vision of a man and his wife living with their two children in the house of their dreams. Importantly, subsequent developers became savvy at framing their endeavors as essential to the common American good with the result being generous federal subsidies that served to finance these developments as well as significant tax breaks for wealthy home-owners.